A Comparison of Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles for Clean Transportation

Main Article Content

Mustafa Sacid Endiz


Burning fossil fuels for transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, air pollution, and health problems. Research estimates that cars alone emit more than 300 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year due to the internal combustion engines that use fossil fuels. In contrast to fossil fuel vehicles, electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions. Therefore, countries around the world are making efforts to use electric vehicles instead of fossil fuels. Two of the available alternatives to internal-combustion engines are battery and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. This work investigates the basic functionalities and current advancements of battery and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. A comprehensive comparison of the benefits and drawbacks of each technology is provided, along with future forecasts for transportation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Endiz, M. S. (2023). A Comparison of Battery and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles for Clean Transportation. Orclever Proceedings of Research and Development, 2(1), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.56038/oprd.v2i1.230


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data. Available online: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data (accessed on 20 February 2023).

García-Olivares, A., Solé, J., & Osychenko, O. (2018). Transportation in a 100% renewable energy system. Energy Conversion and Management, 158, 266-285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.12.053

König, A., Nicoletti, L., Schröder, D., Wolff, S., Waclaw, A., & Lienkamp, M. (2021). An overview of parameter and cost for battery electric vehicles. World Electric Vehicle Journal, 12(1), 21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010021

Safari, M. (2018). Battery electric vehicles: Looking behind to move forward. Energy Policy, 115, 54-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.12.053

Hoekstra, A. (2019). The underestimated potential of battery electric vehicles to reduce emissions. Joule, 3(6), 1412-1414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.06.002

Eberle, U., Müller, B., & Von Helmolt, R. (2012). Fuel cell electric vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure: status 2012. Energy & Environmental Science, 5(10), 8780-8798. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ee22596d

Muthukumar, M., Rengarajan, N., Velliyangiri, B., Omprakas, M. A., Rohit, C. B., & Raja, U. K. (2021). The development of fuel cell electric vehicles–A review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 45, 1181-1187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.03.679

Tanç, B., Arat, H. T., Baltacıoğlu, E., & Aydın, K. (2019). Overview of the next quarter century vision of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 44(20), 10120-10128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.10.112

Cunanan, C., Tran, M. K., Lee, Y., Kwok, S., Leung, V., & Fowler, M. (2021). A review of heavy-duty vehicle powertrain technologies: Diesel engine vehicles, battery electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. Clean Technologies, 3(2), 474-489. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cleantechnol3020028