The Numerical Analysis of The Group and Phase Velocity of Waves in The Ionosphere is Thought to Be Collision-Free

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Kadri Kurt
Melik Buğra Yeşil


The behavior of phase and group velocities of waves occurring in the ionosphere, which is considered collision-free, is the focus of this article. The phase velocities of the waves (ordinary, polarized waves) occurring in the ionosphere are larger than the speed of light, whereas the group velocities are less than the speed of light, according to the findings. The phase velocities are compatible with changes in electron density under acceptable conditions, however, the group velocities show an antisymmetric variation with the electron density. In the northern hemisphere, the extra-ordinary wave takes negative values, while in the southern hemisphere, it takes positive values.


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Kurt, K., & Yeşil, M. B. (2022). The Numerical Analysis of The Group and Phase Velocity of Waves in The Ionosphere is Thought to Be Collision-Free. The European Journal of Research and Development, 2(2), 459–465.



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